Role and Responsibilities of International Institutions and States Within the International Political Economy


The idea or rather concept of economic efficiency is one that has been seen to be affecting the world and its entirety since time immemorial. It is one a factor or rather concept that has been seen to have had been tabled for discussion by many people since its significance in the world is one that cannot be easily ignored. Economic efficiency refers to a situation where the amount of resources or rather funds in each state can sustain the population in that state without there being cases of deficiency. This implies that the people in that country receive their basic and luxury needs without having to go through constraints such as spending more to get them. The world’s population has been growing significantly and this has led to the resources that are available being scarce thus calling for extra measures to be taken to ensure that these has been handled effectively. Human security may be a means of reducing human costs of violent conflicts, a strategy to allow governments to meet basic human needs, and address the inequalities arising due to globalization, and handle threats such as economic crisis (Acharya, 2001). This paper seeks a comprehensive review of the idea of global economic efficacy and its implications to the human populace as well as the challenges that are facing institutions in their bid to restore the global economy back to normalcy.

International Institutions

Over the past few years, the international community has increasingly become interconnected as well as inter-dependent with enhanced progress of technology and economic integration. The recent economic crisis has exposed the limitations of cooperation in the global economy and the fact that only diplomatic consensus has resulted in feasible solutions(Gabriela, 2013). There is a pertinent need to redesign global governance architecture, and this cannot take place without an active role of international organizations. While the states are dominant actors in the international arena and do play a crucial role in policy making process, international cooperation can be enhanced through international organizations(Gabriela, 2013). The international political economy is about an interplay of economics and politics in global affairs(Woods, 2001). The world markets are dominated by a set of rules and laws that governs various players includingmultinational organizations and this forms the international institutions.

International organizations are great actors in international politics with role in mediation, dispute resolution, peace keeping, and issuing sanctions(Gabriela, 2013). An international organization can be defined as an institutional agreement between the various members of an international system to attain their specific goals as per systemic conditions, aspirations and concerns of member participants(Gabriela, 2013). The modern international system has undergone three main architectural features over its development time(Gabriela, 2013). The first stage involved the state as a definitive tool for decision making in international relations. The second stage had agreements between various states. The third stage has a multilateral system architecture with its core in the United Nations. These three stages are likely to form a strong base for international relations for a long time.

Many countries are either excluded or left behind by the decisions of international organizations, and for many poor countries participating in an international system is beyond reality(Gabriela, 2013). For instance, the international trade system is dominated by powerful players that are preferred over the others. International organizations are often seen as closed systems and participants are mere packages limited by their stringent rules and regulations(Gabriela, 2013).

There is a rising concern among economists that the current dominant frameworks are no longer enough to fully address and analyse the issues of globalizing and transient economies. After the crisis of 2008, there is a consensus that major global problems such as rising poverty, higher inequality and environmental degradation are key blackspots for global economic framework(McGregor & Pouw, 2017). The concept of human wellbeing is used to denote the overall concept of living well, including both objective and subjective well-being. The approach to well-being is a central theme in many of the international frameworks being used to assess the same. Well-being has three main constructs –a material dimension, a relational dimension, and a subjective dimension. Hence, a person’s well-being depends on what he or she has (material), how he or she utilizes what he or she has (relational), and the level of satisfaction arising due to quality of life derived from what he or she has, and can do (subjective)(McGregor & Pouw, 2017).

International Financial Institutions such as International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank Group, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development allow only sovereign countries as owner members, but have a broad country membership with both borrowing developing countries, and developed donor countries(Bhargava, 2006).

In this never-ending race to be the most economical, one major aspect that has not been given much due consideration is linked to the capacity that a state has to meet the terms and conditions of different forms of human rights obligations, i.e. economic, cultural and social rights. To meet this challenge, IMF and the World Bank have imposed economic reforms that allow production of goods and services to be worth exporting along with being deregulated and privatized. Foreign investment has become a must. Today, all states are inclined towards easing labour standards and modifying legal taxes to attract foreign investors. This inclination of states, in turn has led to a major destruction of human rights principles and the capability of states to self-sufficiently regulate their progress. Cooperation is required not only on an international level but also from non-state actors to safeguard rudimentary societal and financial privileges.

International Relation Theory

“International Relations theory entails the development of conceptual frameworks and theories to facilitate the understanding and explanation of events and phenomena in world politics, as well as the analysis and informing of associated policies and practices” (Glinchey, et al., 2017). The discipline of international relation was authoritatively settled after World War 1 with a view to keeping away from future mass clashes and guaranteeing serene change. This remaining part a commendable objective, yet today the extension and complexities of world legislative issues request a comprehension of a significantly more extensive scope of issues (Stephen, 2017). Besides, new calculated systems and speculations are required to enhance our comprehension and aid the improvement of better arrangements and practices. Theory of International Relations enables us to comprehend and attempt to understand our general surroundings through different focal points, each of which speaks to an alternate hypothetical viewpoint(Glinchey, et al., 2017). International relations theory is the investigation of international relations from a hypothetical point of view. It endeavours to give a calculated structure where upon international relations can be analysed. The three most noticeable speculations are realism, liberalism, and constructivism.


Realism is one of the most established and most mainstream theories in the discipline since its reality and is a capable strategy to have profitable bits of knowledge into the area of global legislative issues(Glinchey, et al., 2017). The origination of realism is recognized from other International Relation theory principally by its accentuation on four noteworthy suggestions; state of international anarchy, primacy of state, rational nature of the states and survival of the states(Glinchey, et al., 2017). The realist camp trusts that the state is a unitary substance choosing its connection with different states and there is no super-expert over the state to manage its conduct as for different states. As the worldwide field exists in a steady condition of turmoil and the world framework being leaderless, the state as the supreme expert always flourishes to seek after its self-intrigue and battles to survive(O’Brien & Williams, 2016). It is dependably in a condition of either being forceful or worried about its own security (Glinchey, et al., 2017).So, the realists are of the firm feeling that there can’t be a typical direction which is authoritative upon all the global performers and the unrivalled choice left with the state is to continue viewing the worldwide field and embrace a sober minded way to deal with settle issues as they show up. The realist internationalism is the objective of feedback on a few grounds. All things considered, the pragmatist internationalism stays a standout amongst the most well-known and power theory in the train of international relations(Glinchey, et al., 2017). This approach argues that international institutions are and are expected to remain ineffective since they cannot prevent states from engaging in power-politics or self-interest(Crockett, 2012). Institutions only have marginal power in comparison to states, and international institutions only ensure peace by manipulating the action of member states(Crockett, 2012). For example, United Nations is an international institution set up to promote cooperation within states to settle their differences. The Earth Summit is a brilliant instance of such an international cooperation to fight climate change. The traditional realists rarely referred to international institutions as a concept, but they do focus on the role of international law and international relations(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). The governments of various states are always willing to restrain any impact of international law on their foreign policies and are looking forward to using the same in their self-interest. As per hegemonic stability theory, international institutions are likely to be created bydominant states at the time of hegemony(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012).The hegemonic power is both able and willing to establish and maintain the norms and rules of a liberal economic system(Gilpin, 1987). However, the mere existence of hegemonic power is not sufficient alone to develop an internationally liberal economy. Hegemony can motivate, but not compel other powerful states to follow the rules of an open world economy. As per this concept, the hegemon or the leader has the responsibility to guarantee the provision of collective goods of an open trading system and a stable currency(Gilpin, 1987). There is a threat of cheaters in such an open system who do not pay their share of providing collective goods, but take benefits of the same(Gilpin, 1987). In the context of international relations, both United States and Great Britain have been hegemonic players, but their positions have relatively declined with the rise of new economies such as China which have now become powerful players in international arena (Callahan & Barabantseva, 2011). The 2007 financial crisis in USA can be considered because of contemporary capitalism(Lapavitsas, 2009). The issue became global due to the transformation of banks and international financial institutions.


Institutionalisms share a significant number of Realism’s presumptions about the global framework—that it is anarchic, that States are self-intrigued, sane performing artists trying to survive while expanding their material conditions, and that vulnerability plagues relations between nations(O’Brien & Williams, 2016). In any case, Institutionalism depends on microeconomic theory and game theory to achieve a profoundly extraordinary conclusion—that co-operation between countries is conceivable. The focal understanding is that co-operation might be a sound, self-intrigued system for nations to seek after under specific conditions(Keohane, 2001).

Institutionalisms contend that establishments that characterized as an arrangement of tenets, standards, practices and basic leadership techniques that shape desires can beat the vulnerability that undermines co-operation. Initially, establishments expand the time skyline of collaborations, making an iterated diversion instead of a solitary round (O’Brien and Marc, 2010). Nations concurring on impromptu duties may for sure advantage from deceiving their neighbours in any one round of arrangements. However, nations that know they should communicate with similar accomplices repeatedly through an organization will rather be motivated to conform to assertions in the fleeting, so they may keep on extracting the advantages of co-operation in the long haul.

Institutionalisms take note of that organizations can extraordinarily expand effectiveness. It is exorbitant for States to consult with each other on a specially appointed premise(O’Brien & Williams, 2016). Organizations can lessen the exchange expenses of co-appointment by giving a unified gathering in which States can meet. Institutionalism in this manner gives a clarification to worldwide co-operation considering the same hypothetical suppositions that lead Realists to be incredulous of global law and foundations(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). As per this approach, international organizations inspire states to behave in a cooperative manner. For example, institutions such as NATO motivates cooperation among its various members. International institutions are successful in increasing international cooperation for complex issues(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). Institutions are expected to enhance cooperation by raising concern for an issue, improving contractual environment and domestic capacity to implement the agreements. International institutions may also have a limiting effect on the development of new institutions(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). Hence, the new institutions must be compiled within the construct of the existing institutions.


Constructivism isn’t a theory, yet rather ontology: An arrangement of suspicions about the world and human inspiration and office. Its partner isn’t Realism, Institutionalism, or Liberalism, yet rather Rationalism. By testing the realist system that undergirds numerous speculations of international relations, constructivists make constructivist choices in each of these groups of theories (Guilhot,2014).

In the Constructivist account, the factors important to researchers are not critical because they are target actualities about the world, but instead because they have certain social implications(Copeland, 2000). This significance is built from a mind boggling and particular blend of history, thoughts, standards, and convictions, which researchers must comprehend on the off chance that they are to clarify State conduct(Guilhot, 2014). An emphasis on the social setting in which international relations happen drives constructivists to stress issues of character and conviction. The impression of companions and adversaries, in-gatherings and out-gatherings, decency and equity all end up noticeably key determinant of a State’s conduct. While a few Constructivists would acknowledge that States are self-intrigued, objective performers, they would push that fluctuating personalities and convictions give a false representation of the oversimplified ideas of judiciousness under which States seek after essentially survival, influence, or riches(Guilhot, 2014).

While Institutionalism theory see organizations to a great extent as the uninvolved devices of States, Constructivism takes note of that worldwide administrations may try to seek after their own particular advantages even against the desires of the States that made them (Haynes, 2012). Rational constructivism approach explains international cooperation based on anarchy(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). This approach brings social construct within international relations. The idea of international society is seen as an international community existing among states participating at an international level(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). International institutions as per this theory are seen as a group of states that have established common rules and regulations for conduct of their relations, and recognize their self-interest while doing the same. International society refers to the legal and political idea on which concept of international institutions is based(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). The constructivist approach is highly involved in framing rules and regulations. For example, when a rule is embedded within an international law, the various governments must satisfy a minimum condition of universality involved. As per this approach, the international institutions define the key players in a specific situation, and the way they define their roles, and hence place a limit of their behaviour. In a way, international organizations are pressuring the target actors to adopt new policies and laws, and monitor compliance to international standards. Hence, international organizations may be seen as key socializing agents(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012).


Neoliberalism is an old term, going back to the 1930s, however it has been restored as a method for portraying our present governmental issues – or even more exactly, the scope of thought permitted by our legislative issues (Haynes, 2012). In the consequence of the 2008 financial crisis, it was a method for doling out duty regarding the catastrophe, not to a political gathering as such, but rather to a foundation that had yielded its power to the market(Haynes, 2012).

No sooner had neoliberalism been ensured as genuine, and no sooner had it clarified the all-inclusive false reverence of the market, then the populists and dictators came to control. In the US, Hillary Clinton, the neoliberal curve scoundrel, lost – and to a man who knew sufficiently only to imagine he despised organized commerce(Haynes, 2012). Against the powers of worldwide coordination, national character is being reasserted, and in the crudest conceivable terms(Haynes, 2012).


Summarily, the paper looks at some of the concepts that are used in the running of the different international institutions and the different ways with which such functions affect the economy. There is a need to standardize international institutions and their corporate governance for better economic outcomes. The paper provides a comprehensive review of the idea of global economic efficacy and its implications to the human populace as well as the challenges that are facing institutions in their bid to restore the global economy back to normalcy.

Economic globalization has had quite a destructive impact on state regulation. People have been affected negatively and gradually the impact is increasing and becoming more obvious. The more competitive a nation, the lesser the regulations. Though this tactic is almost perfect in attracting multinational corporations, it is quite destructive in nature. In order to compete with such nations, other states are also forced to decrease their regulatory measures if they wish to get foreigners to invest in their country. No nation wishes to reduce its competitiveness or power. Foreign investors are now consuming the money that should have been legally invested in maintains the rights of the public socially, economically and culturally.


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  2. Bhargava, V., 2006. The role of international financial institutions in Addressing Global Issues. In: Global Issues for Global Citizens. Geneva: World Bank, pp. 399-409.
  3. Callahan, W. A. & Barabantseva, E., 2011. China orders the world: normative soft power and foreign policy. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
  4. Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. & Simmons, B. A., 2012. Handbook of International Relations. London: SAGE.
  5. Copeland, D. C., 2000. Review: The Constructivist Challenge to Structural Realism: A Review Essay. International Security, 25(2), pp. 187-212.
  6. Crockett, S., 2012. The Role of International Organisations in World Politics. [Online]
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  8. Gilpin, R., 1987. The Political Economy of International Relations. London: Princeton.
  9. Glinchey, S. M., Walters, R. & Scheinpflug, C., 2017. International Relations Theory. Bristol: E-International Relations .
  10. Guilhot, N., 2014. Imperial Realism: Post-War IR Theory and Decolonisation. International History Review, Volume 36, pp. 698-720.
  11. Haynes, P., 2012. Immanent Transcendance: Reconfiguring Materialism in Continental Philosophy. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
  12. Keohane, R. O., 2001. Governance in a Partially Globalized World Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 2000. American Political Science Review, 95(1), pp. 1-13.
  13. Lapavitsas, C., 2009. Financialised Capitalism: Crisis and Financial Expropriation. London: Research on Money and Finance.
  14. McGregor, J. A. & Pouw, N., 2017. Towards an economics of well-being. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Volume 41, p. 1123–1142.
  15. O’Brien, R. & Williams, M., 2016. Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics. 3rd ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  16. Woods, N., 2001. International Political Economy in an Age of Globalization. In: J. Baylis & S. Smith, eds. The Globalization of World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 277-298.


Food Fortification is the Only Solution to Cure Global Nutritional Deficiency

Many people are still unaware about the benefits of Food fortification worldwide. However, in the last few years, several countries have initiated the practice of food fortification in their own lands to curb the nutritional woes of its citizens.

Considering the current situation, when we intake much of the impure food due to growing adulteration of farming methods, food fortification is becoming more urgent than ever.

Around 3 to 5 million people die due to nutritional deficiency every year. According to research study published on Copenhagenconsensus news portal, such deaths due to under nutrition and malnourishment could be prevented through food fortification.

Food Fortification
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It refers to a process of adding minerals and vitamins to foods to prevent diseases, and keeping people fit and in shape. It improves immune systems and cognitive development too. The grains like flour, rice, wheat and maize flour are fortified to prevent birth defects affecting spine and brain. It helps preventing nutritional anemia too.

The United Nations accepted 17 sustainable development goals with an intention to fortifying grains towards addressing the growing concern of malnutrition prevailing across the world, and especially in developing nations including the third world countries.

Food Fortification: Substances and Benefits

Vitamin B6: For enhancing enzyme reactions and metabolisms

Selenium: Stimulate Thyroid functions inside the body

Calcium: Helps strengthening the bones making them stronger and assist proper functioning of the muscles.

Zinc: Improves our immune system.

Vitamin B12: Assists in proper functioning of the brain and nervous system.

Vitamin D: It helps human bodies to absorb necessary amount of calcium strengthening their bones.

Necessity of Food Fortification in Africa

Africa reports maximum number of deaths due to malnutrition every year. In order to curb this menace now, FAO along with the UN and other international agencies of repute have strongly advocated for food fortification equally in all parts of Africa.

At present several countries are making mandatory legislation to ensure that food fortification process is completed transparently and in a meticulous manner. The European Union (EU) is making huge investments towards food fortification in African countries.

In Gambia, one of the poorest countries of Africa, the rate of malnutrition and underweight is growing day by day. Also, severe Vitamin A deficiency is rising very much in Gambia. Anemia is also becoming a common disease for women across the nation.

Food Fortification: New Trends and Need

Fortifying wheat flour with folic acid is vital to prevent neural tube defects. Without food fortification, as many as 1 in every 500 pregnancies get affected due to neural tube problems.

The rate of neural tube defects has plummeted by 35% in 1998 largely due to timely intervention by the concerned authority making food fortification obligatory.

In fact, several countries get affected due to such kind of defects which could be otherwise prevented by proper consumption of folic acid added to food grains and cereals. Folic acid also cures the diseases relating to neuropathy as well.

Image source: foodfacts website

Since 1998, the United States has successfully prevented 3,000 cases of NTD (Neural Tube Defects) owing to its nationwide implementation of food fortification policies that include adding necessary amount of folic acid in necessary food grains.

It’s high time that all countries should follow food fortification process in a judicious way to ensure that people shouldn’t face problems relating to nutritional deficiency or other diseases that affect thousands of lives round the year due to malnutrition and under-nutrition.

How to Know If Your Child has been Sexually Abused at School

How to Know If Your Child has been Sexually Abused at School
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A school is the first phase of socialization for any kid, but beware; antisocial elements could be found in schools too. Yes, such crass-mentality people can do anything to any kid at broad daylight. The best way to ensure the safety of your kids is by disclosing them what they are ought to know for their protection.Child abuse is something that is quite frequent in schools. Even some teachers and school officials often indulge in such nefarious activities with cruel intentions.

It is relatively very difficult to trace out whether your child has been really sexually abused or not. There are two types of child abuses; one that involves direct touching and groping and another is sexually harassing them emotionally.

A direct sexual harassment of the kid is life-threatening and every parent needs to tackle the issue with an iron hand. Take your child to the nearby hospital to ensure that no serious damage has been done to his/ her private parts. Then you must stop sending your kids to the school and bring the unfortunate event straight to the notice of law enforcement agency so that the culprit shall be incarcerated.

In case, the person tries to harass your kid in an indirect manner then you need to stay cautious, and ensure that the child doesn’t meet that man or woman in future. Yes, perpetrators can be anybody men or women. Gender has nothing to do with it. A Cruel Intention is something that every parent has to stay cautious about.

Your Kid has Been Sexually Abused at Schools: Key Indicators

  1. Pain in Mouth or Genitals with or without discharges.
  2. Discoloration in the genital region.
  3. Pain during urinating.
  4. A sudden change in their behavior.
  5. Unexplained bruises, abrasions, black eyes and other injuries.

These are the serious indicators that your child has been sexually abused. It requires immediate treatment by a team of qualified and experienced doctors. You should encourage your child to spill the beans as what and how it happened so that doctors and law enforcement personnel could take appropriate action on an urgent basis.

Your Kid Has Mentally Faced the Agony of a Child Abuse

Perpetrators not always enter into physical contact with a child directly. He often follows a certain pattern and tries to first do friendship with the kid.

During such an interaction, he or she often does a lot of activities which are a clear indicator of the imminent sexual threat that the kid faces.

Such activities Include But Not Limited To:

  1. Playing Pornographic films in front of a kid.
  2. Showing his genitals to a child.
  3. Snapping pictures of the child in nude.
  4. Encouraging a child to watch adult films.

Parents have to stay watchful of these behaviors at school. Not meeting with the strangers won’t serve the purpose as the perpetrator can be a servant, teacher or any other person at the school.

child kid abuse
Image source: slideshare

If a kid comes home with a sign of any mental worry or depression then the matter should be properly investigated. Since a child is emotionally abused so his behavior is bound to remain something different after the trauma.

Emotional Child Abuse of a Kid: Key Indicators

  1. A sudden change in a kid’s talking abilities.
  2. The child becomes silent.
  3. Excessive fear of going to school or meeting a particular person.
  4. An aggressive behavior on and off.
  5. Nightmare and change in sleep patterns.
  6. The kid wishes to stay alone most of the time.
  7. Depression, anxiety and unusual fears with a constant loss of self-esteem.
  8. Poor appetite.
  9. Poor hygiene.
  10. Lack of concentration in studies and sports.

There is a rule that parents should always behave like friends when talking to children. Openness and frankness are the two cornerstones of a parent-child relationship. You should be as much friendlier to your child that he or she should tell you each and everything.

Once you have identified the potential child abuse signs symptoms, your next step will be to take the child to a qualified doctor and psychiatrists for further treatment and counseling purposes.

10 Great Tips for Better Time Management

time management
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We have everything but only thing that we lack these days is the time. So, time management is essential to a happy living. A day might be consisting of 24-hour but subtracting 8-hour of sleep from our daily routine, we are left with just 16 hours per day. Now, we have to manage our work and household stuff within this time frame.

Procrastination and irregular time table of our daily life schedules make it important to chalk out appropriate strategy for better time management. Easier said than done. A lot of people no matter how punctual they are in real lives tend to fail where time management matters.

#1) Schedule: Waking up in the morning, the first thing that you should do is to write your schedule on a pen and paper. Mention all the necessary things that you will do in the rest of the day. It includes essential meeting with clients or visiting new places (as per the demand of the job) and keep an expected time for these events. Eventually, at the work front, you will realise the actual deviation of these works so as to allocate more time for such works in future.

#2) Think it: Every action should precede with a thought. So, give a considerable time to think how you will spend the rest of the day.

#3) Analyze Each call and meet: Immediately, after any meet or telephone calls, you should analyze whether the meet or calls were productive or not. If these calls were not productive then you have to analyse what went wrong.

#4) Less time on social media and emails: You don’t need to answer to every petty email. Keep it reserved only for important messages. Also, try to spend lesser time on facebook. In recent times, social media has emerged out as the leading cause of distraction at workplace.

#5) Keep a pocket calendar: Keeping a pocket calendar is important to make sure that don’t miss out any important dates. You can also use Google calendar feature on your smartphone and tablet with an alarm to keep reminding you about new meets and events.

#6) Never Fail Deadlines: Many often, we don’t take deadlines seriously. But it is utmost important to treat each deadline with utmost respect. It not only ensures better time management but also lets you know how many things you can do within the deadline.

#7) Early Sleep and Wake up: Never compromise on your early morning schedule. Your goal should be to wrap your work early so that you can go to bed early in the night and then eventually after a good 8-hour sleep, you can wake up early in the morning feeling refreshed and healthy.

#8) keeping a tab on time: If you wish to follow your time management carefully then keeping an eye on clock or watch is necessary. Sometimes, we stayed focused on our work to such an extent that we forget the time factor. A clock or wrist watch with frequent alarms will keep reminding you whenever you go overtime.

#9) Learn the art of Prioritizing: Well, you can’t do all stuff and everything in a single day. You have to prioritise each activity in order of their merit and importance. High priority works are the ones on which you need to give your maximum attention to.

#10) Stay fit and eat Healthy: A lot of time often goes in vain due to health issues. So, your effort should be towards staying fit and fine. It will help you keeping illness at bay while saving your valuable time from falling sick.

Why Women Need to Trust Themselves More

Women confidence trust
Image source: licdn

Women can do everything. From reaching the moon to scaling mountains – they are well capable of doing even the laborious unconventional tasks that were not meant to be. In the 21st century, women have to leverage the opportunity, scope and logical thinking in their favor.

Instead, women’s trust factor within themselves is somewhere lost in the battle of feminism and political upmanship. On the contrary, Women really need to trust themselves more rather than looking up to others for their own socio-economic development and well-being.

During the last US Presidential Elections 2016, the entire world prayed for the then US Secretary of the State Hillary Clinton’s victory out of emotion since the US has elected no female president ever in the history.

However, she was a non-performer and controversial figure. From deletion of emails from the official server to mishandling of Libyan crisis (When the US embassy was burnt down in Benghazi in 2012), the then secretary of the state Hillary Clinton has completely failed to manage those crises.

Even, Hillary Clinton once advocated for a child rapist in a 1975 court case and successfully defended him too. Yet, she still preaches for child rights and women empowerment and has an enormous fan support too.

So, nothing is translucent. Everything aspect has its black and white aspect too. Rather than putting blind faith in somebody, women need to empower themselves individually with right thoughts, education and self-defense techniques to lead a good, safe and dignified life.

Why Are Women Losing Trust on Others?

  • The deceitful behavior of men.
  • Exploitation at a workplace.
  • Rampant Domestic Violence.
  • Relegating the status of a woman by another woman.
  • The gap of Gender Parity still exists.
  • Unequal pay for same work (Income inequality between men and women)
  • Many women have inherent tendency to consider every other person as a potential aggressor leading to their lack of trust in others.
trust women confidence
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Why Should Women Now Stop Blaming Others?

You can’t take the world so naively. It has several people having different thought processes and intentions. Though not everyone is an inherent criminal or male chauvinist, but your own safety and well-being are paramount.

You can’t always blame the law enforcement agency for everything. Common, you have to behave rationally too. Here is the checklist for every woman;

  • Don’t consider marriage as the “end of life” or beginning of a “heavenly journey”. It’s just a phase of life, accept it gracefully.
  • Marital rape and domestic violence should be vehemently opposed from the day one.
  • You should have enough education and skills to lead a happy life.
  • Any physical harassment at an office or public place should be dealt with an iron hand at an appropriate forum.
  • Learning same self-defense techniques could be extremely helpful to fightback incase of a threat.
  • Never settle for anything lesser than equal pay for equal work. Fight for it or else start your own business venture and be an example for others to follow.
  • Finally, discourage people, be it men or women, who try to demean your accomplishment and discourage you too often.

Women have to believe in themselves. Trusting oneself is the beginning of a social change. Be good, strong and rational. Women need to trust themselves more rather than blaming others for exploitation.

confidence trust women
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The aftermath of Second World War saw a massive development in women’s self-confidence and self-belief as they had to raise their children sans male members. Always consider yourself independent and keep your confidence level high – that’s all.

How to Handle Online Harassment – Tips and Tricks for Women

How to handle online harassment - tips and tricks for Women
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When it comes to online harassment of women, social media tops the chart. Be it Asia, Europe or anywhere else, the effect of lopsided patriarchal society and mindsets is making the world more uneven than before. While talking about cyber crimes, women suffer the most. Women are stalked and thrashed on social media for reasons best known to trollers themselves quite frequently.

Posting one’s views or expressing one’s opinion on social media is one’s fundamental rights but the way women face backlash for doing so is something that we should collectively ponder over. We have to remove this “online harassment” menace from our civilised world.

#5) Never Reveal Your Real Home Address

Well, posting your home address on social media is something that should be seriously avoided at all costs. However, you can always reveal your Post Box number or office address online for communication purposes wherever necessary.

#4) Treat All Incoming Calls with Caution

Obviously, not all incoming calls are necessary. You must figure out the relevance of the call first without receiving it. Especially, you should exert more caution if you receive a call in your personal mobile number from an unknown location and caller id.

#3) Never Disclose Confidential Details

Be it your bank account number, credit or debit card, or even Social Security Number – don’t disclose these details to anyone over social media. Online harasser or Cyber criminals may harass and harm you severely by physically, monetarily and mentally once they get these details.

#2) Protect Your Systems and Devices

Periodically, we should gauge the anti-virus effectiveness of our devices. Especially, for business women, virus in the personal and office system is a strict no-no as it may lead a hacker to infect your system and get back all crucial and sensitive data stored in the system. Always use quality and full proof anti-virus software round the clock in your devices.

#1) All Followers are Not Well-Wishers

Many social media users forget that not all followers are their well-wishers. Some of them could be criminals too – stalking you with a criminal intent. Trollers on social media sites like twitter and facebook have peculiar mentality; they stalk you to post threatening like rape/murder/Threat online to intimidate you for a reason or not.

Even though many of them get caught by the law enforcement agencies, a lot of them run away using fake IP addresses. So, self-care is the best remedy in such a situation. Without waiting for the cops to react – use your social media safely. Keeping your social media accounts in a private mode is a good option to know who you approve as your followers on receiving their requests.

Women Shouldn’t Fear Online Bullying

Never let online trollers dictate terms. You don’t need to fear and shutting out all your social media accounts. By doing so, they will become stronger in their nefarious intent and then go to harass another woman.

So, you have to use your social media accounts in a cautioned way without restricting your normal followers either. If you notice any suspicious activity or absurd comment hurled at you with a negative motive, then you should immediately block that person. Repeat it wherever necessary. It is the first line of defense against Cyber-bullying that women frequently face online these days.

How to handle online harassment - tips and tricks for Women
Image source: theatlantic

Last but not the least; never let online harassment shatter your confidence. Never hesitate to take the help from Police if you feel unsafe or find that a situation is getting out of hand. It is always better to be safe than sorry!

Six Strategies for Indian Retailers to enhance their Profitability

The Indian retail sector has seen a high growth over the past decade with an emerging trend towards organized retail formats. The organized retail sector has today reached a share of 8-10% from an initial penetration of 2-3% a decade ago. There are multiple factors that have pushed the growth of Indian retail sector such as strong and robust economic growth, increased retail spending, growth in product categories that are retailed and emergence of innovative distribution channels such as smartphones. In such a powerful growth environment, it becomes critical for players to understand best strategies for higher profitability in Indian retail industry:


Figure 1Six Strategies for Indian Retailers to enhance their Profitability

  1. Customers are king

The first critical step towards enhanced profitability in retail begins with addressing the needs of consumers. Since consumers vary by region, state and street, it becomes critical to understand local market dynamics and accordingly arrange product assortments in an online or offline store, so that their diverse needs are met. It may be a good idea to hire a chief consumer officer whose job is to continuously understand and address the needs of customers.

  1. Unique value proposition

In a highly competitive market segment, it makes sense to position your brand with a differentiated value offering. Retailers that design a unique value proposition which sets them apart from the competition multiply their chances of survival in the fierce competition. In order to develop a consumer centric value proposition, it is logical to analyse customer feedback about your brand, and then devise strategies to serve them better. Innovative ideas should form the basis of your value proposition strategies.

  1. Customer experience matters

Retailers need to merge online shopping experiences with offline in store experiences so that each customer touch point is attractive. Some of the key strategies for a seamless customer shopping experience include effective inventory management, an integrated sales and operations planning process, multi-modal transportation networks, and training of staff for various management activities.

  1. Let data decide for you

Retailers need to harness the power of data analytics to take critical business decisions. Digital analytics provide useful insights to retailers for marketing, supply chain management and customer experience. Knowing who your customers are, what they need, and how the entire retail chain works makes you a smarter player. Remember, analytics is not a one-time feature. It needs to be continuously explored for customer preferences that keep changing with time.

  1. Invest in technology

An intelligent retailer understands that the only way to stay ahead of the competition is to keep investing in new technology. It is good to take bold risks, but one should always have a back-up plan ready for an unforeseen failure. It is understood that technology has a small shelf life, but continuous contact with customers is expected to me more effective than blanket marketing.

  1. Protect your reputation

When you run a business in a digitally charged environment, you are also exposed to potential risks of such technology. Be it social media or potential website hacks, you need to be vigilant about your digital assets.

These powerful strategies can definitely change the game for your company in a highly competitive retail sector in India.