Evil Empires of History

Here are some of the most evil nations of the world

From worse to the worst, here are the 5 most evil empires in History.

  1. Imperial Japan

Today’s peaceful Japan hasn’t always been so. The Japanese regime was responsible for killing about eight million people so as to become the most powerful empire in Asia.

The biggest victim of the Japanese’s rise to power was China. In 1937, in then China’s capital Nanking, Japanese Imperial Army murdered 300,000 people, half of the entire population of the capital of 600,000. The women were raped and then murdered by the Japanese soldiers. The young soldiers were encouraged to inflict as much pain as possible.

Video: Why China hates Japan

  1. The Spanish Empire – 1492 – 1892

The Spanish empire was rapidly expanding in the 15th and the 16th century. As as result of this expansion, the Spanish empire was also responsible for heartlessly killing about 5 million people. They were also responsible for bringing in the regions they overtook, small pox epidemic due to which about 300 million people died. They forced their interpretation of the Catholicism to be abided by all in their empire. They used the head crusher method to kill those who did not follow their rules.

Image sorce: 4.bp.blogspot.com

  1. Ottoman Empire – 1301 to 1922

Without a doubt, the Ottoman empire was one the most powerful empires in human history. Their reign lasted over six centuries over three continents. Towards the decline, the Ottoman empire was responsible for carrying our many atrocities. One of the known is the burning alive of 5000 people of Batak in Bulgaria. In three years between 1915 and 1918, the empire slaughtered about 2 million Armenians living in Turkey.

 

  1. The Mongol Empire – 1206 to 1368

The Mongol empire is known for killing about 11% of the world’s population. Their empire covered a quarter of the earth. Those killed included pregnant women and innocent civilians. After the Khwarezmid empire lost to the Mongols, they poured molten silver in their eyes.

The historians believe that the deadly black death pandemic took off at the siege of Kaffa. This points our to the possibility of bio warfare by the Mongols.

  1. The British Empire – 1783 to 1997

About 150 million people have died because of the British Empire, which carried tremendous atrocities in Asia, Africa and Europe. Their intrusive taxation system forced the people to bleed. As a result, about 29 million died in India due to widespread famines. This, even after they exported food products in India.

During the Bengal famine of 1943, he refused to take the matter seriously and infamously said “starvation of anyhow underfed Bengalis is less serious than that of sturdy Greeks”.

Life with Schizophrenia

 

Schizophrenia is one of the most misunderstood psychological disorders as people have various misconceptions about Schizophrenia. Let us debug these misconceptions by understanding what Schizophrenia really is.

Firstly, there are different types of Schizophrenia; all depending on the behavior of the person affected which has a distinct characteristic.

  1. Paranoid Schizophrenia

This is the most common occurring type of Schizophrenia. Patients of this subtype are affected more as they grow older when the symptoms start showing and thus it’s hard to find out.

This prompts them to have delusions and thus pushes the patient in a state where he or she starts hearing voices.

  1. Catatonic Schizophrenia

In this severe type schizophrenia, a patient faces disability in movements. Moreover, there are three major characteristic to this type.

  1. Catatonic Excitement
  2. Catatonic Stupor
  3. Stereotypic movement

In catatonic excitement, the patient goes through hyper activity. On the other hand, in catatonic stupor a patient moves slowly and sometimes is even frozen while doing some action like reading.

In stereotypic movement, a person keeps repeating a particular action without purpose without realizing that they are doing so.

  1. Disorganised Schizophrenia

This subtype of schizophrenia largely affects the thinking process of a patient. They tend to pronounce words differently in a disorganized manner making it difficult to understand.

It also happens so that their respond to a certain question would make no sense at all. There are cases in which the patient is unable to perform easy daily tasks like cooking or wearing clothes.

  1. Residual Schizophrenia

This form is a residual schizophrenia in which a person slowly turns back to normal life. It starts with performing everyday tasks in a normal manner and then the psychological disorders fade off with time.

Over 51 million people around the world suffer from Schizophrenia. Out of that, 2.2 million people in America alone live with this disorder.

In simplest terms, Schizophrenia is a disorder in which a person goes through depression along with much other mental instability, like hearing voices, hallucinating and sometimes even seeing things.

The most common symptoms of Schizophrenic are depression and hearing voices. These symptoms make it very difficult for a person, especially someone who has to take care of his or her family. The sad part is that people even today remain insensitive to the problems faced by people affected with Schizophrenia.

Rise of ISIS

Image source: www.pbs.org

Rise of Islamic State a phenomenon that has scared the entire world. It’s controlled territory is as big as United Kingdom which cover huge oil supplies and covertly sells it to nations who too buy it without coming out in the fray.

So how did ISIS come to be?

What does it want?

When Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, men from the middle east came to Afghanistan in support of the rebels who were fighting against the soviets and to overthrow the government. Who was right and who was wrong is a different discussion altogether. These people came to be known as Mujahideen (one engaged in holy war called jihad)

Osama Bin Laden was also one of them. He came from a rich bin Laden family of Saudi Arabia along with him was Abu Musab Zarqawi who was a Jordanian. These two failed to get along and thus both had their own faction. Bin Laden headed Al Qaeda and Zarqawi headed ISIS.

In the year 1989, the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after which Zarqawi and Bin Laden headed back to their countries. Laden started spreading the ideas of Al Qaeda and initiated a worldwide revolt against Islam’s enemies.

Eventually, both returned back to Afghanistan, which was then ruled by Taliban. After the September 11 attack on the Twin Towers of the United States of America, US declared war as Osama declared that he was the one who did it. Following invade, Osama hid in Pakistan, while Zarqawi hid in Iraq.

Two years later, United States under the Presidentship of George Bush and supported by UK invaded Iraq, which created unprecedented havoc in the middle east and which is responsible for the current mess in the subcontinent.

After Saddam’s Sunni dictatorship was toppled by American and supporting forces, they left the Iraqi soldiers as they were and left the country in turmoil without initiating a process to form a government in the country.

Eventually, the disbanded and financially ailing Sunni Iraqi soldiers join the insurgency since it was ready to pay them.  On the other hand, the Jihadist groups were also Sunni. The phase Iraq was entering into was a repetition of of what happened in Afghanistan.

This gave impetus to Zarqawi’s group who came to be the most ruthless group in Iraq. They attacked Shia, Iraq’s majority and igniting an unprecedented Shia-Sunni civil war in Iraq. They became popular among the jihadist groups and Al Qaeda was sidelined, thus Al Qaeda intending to bolster its image, formed an alliance with Zarqawi’s group came to be known as Al Qaeda in Iraq.

In 2006, Zarqawi was killed in a US airstrike and Al Qaeda in Iraq was weakened. This lead to withdrawal of US troops from Iraq in 2011 as Iraq looked stable.

Then came the Arab Spring in the same year, which spread across the middle east. In neighbouring Syria, Bashar al-Assad violently crushed down the protestors and the conflict lead to a civil war in Syria.

Assad released jihadists from prisons fearing his direct involvement will attract foreign intervention. In Iraq the the previously Al Qaeda in Iraq was being headed by a self proclaimed Islamic scholar Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and was renamed as Islamic State of Iraq.

Baghdadi sent troops to Syria to help fight alongside rebel forces of Jabhat al-Nusra. Baghdadi eventually recruited new jihadists by after releasing prisoners of Iraq by attacking the prisons. This gave tremendous power to IS in Iraq and Baghdadi announced that will take control of the Al-Qaeda allies in Syria and Iraq and IS in Iraq became IS in Iraq and Syria.

The rest is history!

Why Pakistan named the Indian cyclone

Recently cyclone Vardah swept the Indian southern State of Tamil Nadu in which 18 people lost their lives along with widespread destruction of the green cover and infrastructure. Many livelihoods were uprooted and squatters displaced.

The name ‘Vardah’ means red rose in Urdu and was suggested by Pakistan. According to a report by the Indian Meteorological Department, through suggestions of several countries a comprehensive list of names of cyclones in the 1900s was formed. It was decided that the names would be feminine and that they would be in alphabetical order as the year proceeds. Later masculine names were given to the cyclones formed in the Southern Hemisphere.

The reason for such names were that they were easier to remember and identifiable for the general public.

The list was formed by eight countries – Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and covers the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.

If anyone wants to suggest a name they can write to IMD’s Director General of Meteorology.

So as to help quick identification of tropical cyclones, the system of naming began; it also makes it easier for media to report about the storm. It’s also easier to remember these names as compare to technical terms and increases preparedness.

How does the naming happen?

E.g. If a storm is names Antara, beginning with letter A, then that means that storm is the first to occur in that year. These names are maintained by the National Hurricane Center. Before 1900, the forecasters used male names for southern hemisphere cyclones, later on the names were taken from the lists by the hurricane center.

The names are updated and maintained by the World Meteorological Organization.

Below are the list of names and the pattern in which the names are written. The name Vardah also is mentioned in the list. You can check which name will be used next time any cyclone hits the Indian Ocean.

$618 Billion Defence Bill will push US-India Defence ties

Image sorce: indianembassy.org

On December 24, US President Barack Obama signed a $618 billion defence policy bill. In this policy, there are mentions to US-India security co-operation.

Here are 5 most important things you need to know about this bill.

  1. This bill, known as the National Defence Authorisation Act (NDAA) was passed by the US House of Representatives and the Senate.

The bill talks about US security relations with Pakistan by saying that US will refocus” its security assistance with its cold war ally.

The bills says that it NDAA will “refocus security assistance to Pakistan on activities that directly support US national security interests and condition a significant portion of funding on a certification from the secretary of defence that Pakistan is taking demonstrable steps against the Haqqani Network in Pakistan territory.”

  1. Guantanamo Bay Facility

Obama’s big target of closing the brutal Guantanamo Bay Facility will not be achieved as the NDAA bill lays restrictions on Guantanamo Bay facility detainees being transferred.

  1. Army and Marine Corps

The NDAA bill authorizes 4, 76,000 active duty soldiers, increase of 16000 from earlier authorisation. The bill also authorises 1, 85,000 Marines, again an increase of 3000 more.

  1. US-India security co-operation

NDAA also promises to enhance security ties with India. This was categorized under the bill in “Supporting Allies and Partner” section.

  1. Increase in Funding

The bill also increased the base funding by $3.2 billion. It also calls for $5.8 billion more in war money requested by the White House.

5 Augmented Reality apps for Android

 

Augmented Reality (AR) apps are the latest next level tools for modern smart phones. Augmented reality gives a super imposed image of what is virtual and brings the user interface to the best level of reality.

  1. Pokemon Go

No AR app list can be worth it without the Pokemon Go app, the most viral game every created. You go to real time locations to find new Pokemon. It’s more than just a game that limits you to your screen, this game has rather made people run to different locations in their city to find their Pokémon.

  1. Google Translate (Free)

Google translate is a fun to use app and really handy when it comes to language. Google translate not only allows you to have translations of and from different languages but it makes this feature a reality based activity. How?

You can translate words from a picture that you click and Google translate will translate the words in the image in the language you require.

  1. Ink Hunter (Free)

In Hunter is an app that lets you figure out the visibility of your tattoo that you would want to put.  The app allows you to customize a design for yourself. It also gives you inbuilt tattoo options. You can use these options and try out on your body. Yes! The app allows you use the camera and place the tattoo on your body so as to impress how exactly the tattoo would look on you.

Even if you don’t intend to get a tattoo, you can surely try out this app for some fun.

  1. Star Chart (Free)

Start Chart app allows you to see the stars and planets in real time as per your location. All you need to do is to point your camera in any direction and the app will use it to show you which stars and planets are above or around you at that time. All of these features are in real time. The app also shows you the zodiac signs in the sky using different stars. It also shows you which the position of the star in different time in the future.

  1. Warp Runner (Free)

If Pokemon Go has bored you to the core, then here is an Augmented Reality game that turns a flat surface into a playing deck. How amazing is that? Players need to guide a robot to the exit. You have to collect objects at the same time and all of it without going outside, so good for those who prefer static gaming.

 

Dentists Found a New Way to Repair Teeth Naturally Using Alzheimer’s Drugs

Image source: Telegraph.co.uk

As we grow old, out natural capacity of the tooth also decreases. Sometimes, this leads to replacement of teeth. In that case, inorganic cements based on calcium or silicon-based mineral aggregates are filled. But often the cement fails to give that much normal mineral volume which is necessary in the gum. Also they often get infected resulting in more problems for the patient.

In case of a problem due to infection – using cements or fillings often lead to infections – which complicate the problem. If the infection is big then dentists finally extract the tooth out of the mouth.

So, scientists have now come forward with a natural solution. They have now found the innovative way of natural formation of reparative dentine by mobilization of stem cells in the tooth pulp.

The process involves delivering low dosage of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3) antagonists through collagen sponges that promote the restoration of dentine. After a few days, the sponge is degraded leading to replacement of complete and effective natural repair. It could do wonder in the field of dental science.

New Research on Dentine at King’s College

A team of researchers at King’s College in London has found another method of stimulating the renewal of living stem cells in tooth pulp through Alzheimer’s drug. Due to infection, the inner pulp of tooth can get infected. In order to prevent so, a thin band of dentine is applied to the tooth pulp to disinfect and seal the same. But sometime this remains far from satisfactory and requires more innovative and appropriate dental implant to correct the same.

A feature published in scientific reports stated that researchers from the Dental Institute at King’s College, London, have found a new remedy with stimulation of stem cells located within the pulp of the tooth to generate new dentine. It reduces the dependence upon external substance and methods like filings or cements.

Professor Paul Sharpe from King’s College London stated, “The simplicity of our approach makes it ideal as a clinical dental product for the natural treatment of large cavities, by providing both pulp protection and restoring dentine. In addition, using a drug that has already been tested in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease provides a real opportunity to get this dental treatment quickly into clinics, he added further.

Experts feel this is an exhaustive process. It will help to enhance the natural repairing ability of the teeth in regard to large cavities. The stimulation of the renewal of the stem cells will include Tideglusib (Substance) which is also useful to cure Alzheimer’s disease. Hope this new invention will help people get their dental implant done in a more natural and safer way.

How Impressionism changed the culture of Art

 

Traditionally, art and artists where about painting portraits, but impressionism hanged the concept and expression through art.

The spark of impressionism was first felt in 1862 with four young artists in a studio in France. Claude Manet, Camille Pissaro, Edgar Degas and Alfred Sisley were under the tutelage of Charles Gleyre. Charle’s style of painting was unconventional and was considered to be hostile to what traditional painters thought about art and reality.

The paintings of that time consisted majorly romanticism and neoclassicism which used thick brush strokes and dark colours. These paintings were hosted at the Salon De Perry, the most prestigious art exhibition of that time.

The cult of Salon de Perry was such that if a painter was not to show there, he was not to be taken seriously as a painter and thus had no career.

The impressionists on the other hand did what the other artists did not. They captured the reality as it was. They painted scenes as they were in everyday lives which at that time was not considered important or rather appropriate.

Napoleon rules France at that time and France was undergoing furious modernization. Napoleon ordered destruction of thousands of houses to make new modern ones on par with American modern infrastructure. These changes in everyday France was captured by the Impressionists in their paintings.

These paintings were so huge a success that people from other countries moved to Paris after being inspired by the paintings. This led to doubling of the city’s population.

In the second half of the 19th century, impressionists formed their own group and remained indifferent to political changed of that time. Their paintings were completely real based on true emotions and portrayal of natural beauty.

Moreover these artists were not inspired by money for their paintings rather they were inspired by painting realities. This was unacceptable to the artists of that time. This became evident when half of their 5000 paintings were rejected at Salon de Perry. Napoleon ordered a different exhibition for these rejected artists but it failed to generate good response and was also criticized extensively.

Interestingly the word impressionism was created by the art critics of the time who used the term to mock the artist’s impression of sunrise by Claude Manet. Inspired by the criticism, the young artists took up impressionism itself called themselves as the Impressionists.

Their paintings were not appreciated and they had to face several unsuccessful shows starting from their first show in 1874 in Paris. In 1886, they gave their last show and thus the era of the impressionists came to an end. By this point of time impressionism had spread across the western world through Claude Manet. He constant tried to spread the idea of impressionism and eventually succeeded in doing so. But by the time success hit his doorsteps, most of his fellow artists were not there to taste it.

 

Can India be Income Tax free?

There is a national debate on abolishment of income tax in India, but is that possible and if it’s possible, is the government willing to do so?

If income tax was removed, there wouldn’t be a question of paying income tax or running away from it, thus legitimizing the money. Thus, no black money remains in the market apart from that of crime.

Since only 4% of Indian population pays income tax, the impact will be limited to the amount of 3 lakh cores that is generated though income tax.

This will also increase hugely, the amount deposited in banks because people will be freely willing to declare their income through their bank accounts and increase savings. This is not possible, it income tax is levied for people evade the tax and thus black money is generated.

Since the bank deposits will shoot up, the interest rates will also decline on loans.

Congress  leader  Sandeep Diksht said that the fear that lurks due to tax terrorism  and income tax officers going everywhere conducting searches is a problem for the people. Income tax officers are not known to be kind and honest in their activities and most of the times people are acquitted after contracts between the culprits and income tax authorities evading justice.

Income tax accounts for about 3 percent of the total GDP income of the country. There has been a failure from the govt to keep a check on the income tax evaded by the people. This has been a great backlog of the Indian economy where black income plays a major role and has its own economic system.

Monaco, Bermuda, Bahamas, Andora and UAE are some countries who have abolished income tax.

Congress leader Salman Soz said to News X that this idea is totally immature since income taxes are considered as progressive taxes. If a person earns more then he must pay higher tax. If it’s gone, then a poor man and a rich man will be paying the same amount of indirect tax which is unfair.

Scientists Discovered Time Crystals: Latest form of Matter

 

In an interesting scientific development, two groups of scientists have discovered a new phase of matter called time crystals. Scientists from Harvard University and the University of Maryland have invented the first-ever time crystals. This newest form of matter will have its applications in quantum computers.

Time crystals have an atomic structure that repeats in time on periodic basis like tapping Jell-O to jiggle. The time crystals are similar to the liquid or gaseous state of ice. According to Yao (scientist) of UC Berkeley group, “time crystals are a new phase of matter, period and first example of non-equilibrium matter”. In fact, time crystals have conga line of 10 ytterbium ions whose electrons interact in a similar way how qubit systems work inside quantum computers.

The idea of time crystals was first conceived by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek in the year 2012. This subject then again got the limelight last year when physicists at Princeton University, the US proved that such crystal can be easily made. In fact, the nano atoms within the time crystals oscillate sans energy making it one of the isolated cases of non-equilibrium matter.

When it comes to normal crystals like diamonds, these have an atomic lattice or array of atoms attached to it – that repeats in space. Time crystals have added a new dimension to the study of matter. For the last few decades together scientists have been zeroing in on equilibrium matters like insulators and metals, but with the discovery of time crystals – this trend is set to change. Now, scientists will also give enough attention to non-equilibrium matters as well.

 

This phase diagram shows how changing the experimental parameters can ‘melt’ a time crystal into a normal insulator or heat up a time crystal to a high temperature thermal state. (Graphic Source: Norman Yao)

How does Time Crystal Functions?

Scientists claimed that time crystals break time symmetry. The magnetic field created by the crystals drive ytterbium atoms producing a typical repetition in it which otherwise won’t happen.

“You have some periodic driver that has a period ‘T’, but the system somehow synchronizes so that you observe the system oscillating with a period that is larger than ‘T’”, a scientist studying time crystals explained. This research on Time Crystals was well supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the concerned varsities.

Time crystals resemble jelly. It jiggles on tapping but otherwise remains motionless and without energy for most of the time. It is definitely a non-equilibrium matter. This prompted Yao and his team to come out with a detailed blueprint and hypothesis that accelerated massive research oin this field by other scientists as well. Yao’s blueprint was first published in Physical Review Letters.