Role and Responsibilities of International Institutions and States Within the International Political Economy


The idea or rather concept of economic efficiency is one that has been seen to be affecting the world and its entirety since time immemorial. It is one a factor or rather concept that has been seen to have had been tabled for discussion by many people since its significance in the world is one that cannot be easily ignored. Economic efficiency refers to a situation where the amount of resources or rather funds in each state can sustain the population in that state without there being cases of deficiency. This implies that the people in that country receive their basic and luxury needs without having to go through constraints such as spending more to get them. The world’s population has been growing significantly and this has led to the resources that are available being scarce thus calling for extra measures to be taken to ensure that these has been handled effectively. Human security may be a means of reducing human costs of violent conflicts, a strategy to allow governments to meet basic human needs, and address the inequalities arising due to globalization, and handle threats such as economic crisis (Acharya, 2001). This paper seeks a comprehensive review of the idea of global economic efficacy and its implications to the human populace as well as the challenges that are facing institutions in their bid to restore the global economy back to normalcy.

International Institutions

Over the past few years, the international community has increasingly become interconnected as well as inter-dependent with enhanced progress of technology and economic integration. The recent economic crisis has exposed the limitations of cooperation in the global economy and the fact that only diplomatic consensus has resulted in feasible solutions(Gabriela, 2013). There is a pertinent need to redesign global governance architecture, and this cannot take place without an active role of international organizations. While the states are dominant actors in the international arena and do play a crucial role in policy making process, international cooperation can be enhanced through international organizations(Gabriela, 2013). The international political economy is about an interplay of economics and politics in global affairs(Woods, 2001). The world markets are dominated by a set of rules and laws that governs various players includingmultinational organizations and this forms the international institutions.

International organizations are great actors in international politics with role in mediation, dispute resolution, peace keeping, and issuing sanctions(Gabriela, 2013). An international organization can be defined as an institutional agreement between the various members of an international system to attain their specific goals as per systemic conditions, aspirations and concerns of member participants(Gabriela, 2013). The modern international system has undergone three main architectural features over its development time(Gabriela, 2013). The first stage involved the state as a definitive tool for decision making in international relations. The second stage had agreements between various states. The third stage has a multilateral system architecture with its core in the United Nations. These three stages are likely to form a strong base for international relations for a long time.

Many countries are either excluded or left behind by the decisions of international organizations, and for many poor countries participating in an international system is beyond reality(Gabriela, 2013). For instance, the international trade system is dominated by powerful players that are preferred over the others. International organizations are often seen as closed systems and participants are mere packages limited by their stringent rules and regulations(Gabriela, 2013).

There is a rising concern among economists that the current dominant frameworks are no longer enough to fully address and analyse the issues of globalizing and transient economies. After the crisis of 2008, there is a consensus that major global problems such as rising poverty, higher inequality and environmental degradation are key blackspots for global economic framework(McGregor & Pouw, 2017). The concept of human wellbeing is used to denote the overall concept of living well, including both objective and subjective well-being. The approach to well-being is a central theme in many of the international frameworks being used to assess the same. Well-being has three main constructs –a material dimension, a relational dimension, and a subjective dimension. Hence, a person’s well-being depends on what he or she has (material), how he or she utilizes what he or she has (relational), and the level of satisfaction arising due to quality of life derived from what he or she has, and can do (subjective)(McGregor & Pouw, 2017).

International Financial Institutions such as International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank Group, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development allow only sovereign countries as owner members, but have a broad country membership with both borrowing developing countries, and developed donor countries(Bhargava, 2006).

In this never-ending race to be the most economical, one major aspect that has not been given much due consideration is linked to the capacity that a state has to meet the terms and conditions of different forms of human rights obligations, i.e. economic, cultural and social rights. To meet this challenge, IMF and the World Bank have imposed economic reforms that allow production of goods and services to be worth exporting along with being deregulated and privatized. Foreign investment has become a must. Today, all states are inclined towards easing labour standards and modifying legal taxes to attract foreign investors. This inclination of states, in turn has led to a major destruction of human rights principles and the capability of states to self-sufficiently regulate their progress. Cooperation is required not only on an international level but also from non-state actors to safeguard rudimentary societal and financial privileges.

International Relation Theory

“International Relations theory entails the development of conceptual frameworks and theories to facilitate the understanding and explanation of events and phenomena in world politics, as well as the analysis and informing of associated policies and practices” (Glinchey, et al., 2017). The discipline of international relation was authoritatively settled after World War 1 with a view to keeping away from future mass clashes and guaranteeing serene change. This remaining part a commendable objective, yet today the extension and complexities of world legislative issues request a comprehension of a significantly more extensive scope of issues (Stephen, 2017). Besides, new calculated systems and speculations are required to enhance our comprehension and aid the improvement of better arrangements and practices. Theory of International Relations enables us to comprehend and attempt to understand our general surroundings through different focal points, each of which speaks to an alternate hypothetical viewpoint(Glinchey, et al., 2017). International relations theory is the investigation of international relations from a hypothetical point of view. It endeavours to give a calculated structure where upon international relations can be analysed. The three most noticeable speculations are realism, liberalism, and constructivism.


Realism is one of the most established and most mainstream theories in the discipline since its reality and is a capable strategy to have profitable bits of knowledge into the area of global legislative issues(Glinchey, et al., 2017). The origination of realism is recognized from other International Relation theory principally by its accentuation on four noteworthy suggestions; state of international anarchy, primacy of state, rational nature of the states and survival of the states(Glinchey, et al., 2017). The realist camp trusts that the state is a unitary substance choosing its connection with different states and there is no super-expert over the state to manage its conduct as for different states. As the worldwide field exists in a steady condition of turmoil and the world framework being leaderless, the state as the supreme expert always flourishes to seek after its self-intrigue and battles to survive(O’Brien & Williams, 2016). It is dependably in a condition of either being forceful or worried about its own security (Glinchey, et al., 2017).So, the realists are of the firm feeling that there can’t be a typical direction which is authoritative upon all the global performers and the unrivalled choice left with the state is to continue viewing the worldwide field and embrace a sober minded way to deal with settle issues as they show up. The realist internationalism is the objective of feedback on a few grounds. All things considered, the pragmatist internationalism stays a standout amongst the most well-known and power theory in the train of international relations(Glinchey, et al., 2017). This approach argues that international institutions are and are expected to remain ineffective since they cannot prevent states from engaging in power-politics or self-interest(Crockett, 2012). Institutions only have marginal power in comparison to states, and international institutions only ensure peace by manipulating the action of member states(Crockett, 2012). For example, United Nations is an international institution set up to promote cooperation within states to settle their differences. The Earth Summit is a brilliant instance of such an international cooperation to fight climate change. The traditional realists rarely referred to international institutions as a concept, but they do focus on the role of international law and international relations(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). The governments of various states are always willing to restrain any impact of international law on their foreign policies and are looking forward to using the same in their self-interest. As per hegemonic stability theory, international institutions are likely to be created bydominant states at the time of hegemony(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012).The hegemonic power is both able and willing to establish and maintain the norms and rules of a liberal economic system(Gilpin, 1987). However, the mere existence of hegemonic power is not sufficient alone to develop an internationally liberal economy. Hegemony can motivate, but not compel other powerful states to follow the rules of an open world economy. As per this concept, the hegemon or the leader has the responsibility to guarantee the provision of collective goods of an open trading system and a stable currency(Gilpin, 1987). There is a threat of cheaters in such an open system who do not pay their share of providing collective goods, but take benefits of the same(Gilpin, 1987). In the context of international relations, both United States and Great Britain have been hegemonic players, but their positions have relatively declined with the rise of new economies such as China which have now become powerful players in international arena (Callahan & Barabantseva, 2011). The 2007 financial crisis in USA can be considered because of contemporary capitalism(Lapavitsas, 2009). The issue became global due to the transformation of banks and international financial institutions.


Institutionalisms share a significant number of Realism’s presumptions about the global framework—that it is anarchic, that States are self-intrigued, sane performing artists trying to survive while expanding their material conditions, and that vulnerability plagues relations between nations(O’Brien & Williams, 2016). In any case, Institutionalism depends on microeconomic theory and game theory to achieve a profoundly extraordinary conclusion—that co-operation between countries is conceivable. The focal understanding is that co-operation might be a sound, self-intrigued system for nations to seek after under specific conditions(Keohane, 2001).

Institutionalisms contend that establishments that characterized as an arrangement of tenets, standards, practices and basic leadership techniques that shape desires can beat the vulnerability that undermines co-operation. Initially, establishments expand the time skyline of collaborations, making an iterated diversion instead of a solitary round (O’Brien and Marc, 2010). Nations concurring on impromptu duties may for sure advantage from deceiving their neighbours in any one round of arrangements. However, nations that know they should communicate with similar accomplices repeatedly through an organization will rather be motivated to conform to assertions in the fleeting, so they may keep on extracting the advantages of co-operation in the long haul.

Institutionalisms take note of that organizations can extraordinarily expand effectiveness. It is exorbitant for States to consult with each other on a specially appointed premise(O’Brien & Williams, 2016). Organizations can lessen the exchange expenses of co-appointment by giving a unified gathering in which States can meet. Institutionalism in this manner gives a clarification to worldwide co-operation considering the same hypothetical suppositions that lead Realists to be incredulous of global law and foundations(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). As per this approach, international organizations inspire states to behave in a cooperative manner. For example, institutions such as NATO motivates cooperation among its various members. International institutions are successful in increasing international cooperation for complex issues(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). Institutions are expected to enhance cooperation by raising concern for an issue, improving contractual environment and domestic capacity to implement the agreements. International institutions may also have a limiting effect on the development of new institutions(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). Hence, the new institutions must be compiled within the construct of the existing institutions.


Constructivism isn’t a theory, yet rather ontology: An arrangement of suspicions about the world and human inspiration and office. Its partner isn’t Realism, Institutionalism, or Liberalism, yet rather Rationalism. By testing the realist system that undergirds numerous speculations of international relations, constructivists make constructivist choices in each of these groups of theories (Guilhot,2014).

In the Constructivist account, the factors important to researchers are not critical because they are target actualities about the world, but instead because they have certain social implications(Copeland, 2000). This significance is built from a mind boggling and particular blend of history, thoughts, standards, and convictions, which researchers must comprehend on the off chance that they are to clarify State conduct(Guilhot, 2014). An emphasis on the social setting in which international relations happen drives constructivists to stress issues of character and conviction. The impression of companions and adversaries, in-gatherings and out-gatherings, decency and equity all end up noticeably key determinant of a State’s conduct. While a few Constructivists would acknowledge that States are self-intrigued, objective performers, they would push that fluctuating personalities and convictions give a false representation of the oversimplified ideas of judiciousness under which States seek after essentially survival, influence, or riches(Guilhot, 2014).

While Institutionalism theory see organizations to a great extent as the uninvolved devices of States, Constructivism takes note of that worldwide administrations may try to seek after their own particular advantages even against the desires of the States that made them (Haynes, 2012). Rational constructivism approach explains international cooperation based on anarchy(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). This approach brings social construct within international relations. The idea of international society is seen as an international community existing among states participating at an international level(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). International institutions as per this theory are seen as a group of states that have established common rules and regulations for conduct of their relations, and recognize their self-interest while doing the same. International society refers to the legal and political idea on which concept of international institutions is based(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012). The constructivist approach is highly involved in framing rules and regulations. For example, when a rule is embedded within an international law, the various governments must satisfy a minimum condition of universality involved. As per this approach, the international institutions define the key players in a specific situation, and the way they define their roles, and hence place a limit of their behaviour. In a way, international organizations are pressuring the target actors to adopt new policies and laws, and monitor compliance to international standards. Hence, international organizations may be seen as key socializing agents(Carlsnaes, et al., 2012).


Neoliberalism is an old term, going back to the 1930s, however it has been restored as a method for portraying our present governmental issues – or even more exactly, the scope of thought permitted by our legislative issues (Haynes, 2012). In the consequence of the 2008 financial crisis, it was a method for doling out duty regarding the catastrophe, not to a political gathering as such, but rather to a foundation that had yielded its power to the market(Haynes, 2012).

No sooner had neoliberalism been ensured as genuine, and no sooner had it clarified the all-inclusive false reverence of the market, then the populists and dictators came to control. In the US, Hillary Clinton, the neoliberal curve scoundrel, lost – and to a man who knew sufficiently only to imagine he despised organized commerce(Haynes, 2012). Against the powers of worldwide coordination, national character is being reasserted, and in the crudest conceivable terms(Haynes, 2012).


Summarily, the paper looks at some of the concepts that are used in the running of the different international institutions and the different ways with which such functions affect the economy. There is a need to standardize international institutions and their corporate governance for better economic outcomes. The paper provides a comprehensive review of the idea of global economic efficacy and its implications to the human populace as well as the challenges that are facing institutions in their bid to restore the global economy back to normalcy.

Economic globalization has had quite a destructive impact on state regulation. People have been affected negatively and gradually the impact is increasing and becoming more obvious. The more competitive a nation, the lesser the regulations. Though this tactic is almost perfect in attracting multinational corporations, it is quite destructive in nature. In order to compete with such nations, other states are also forced to decrease their regulatory measures if they wish to get foreigners to invest in their country. No nation wishes to reduce its competitiveness or power. Foreign investors are now consuming the money that should have been legally invested in maintains the rights of the public socially, economically and culturally.


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Another Reason to Be a Vegetarian in India

In a mystic land of India, around 60% of the people prefer vegetarian dishes over non-vegetarian food. While we Indians attach utmost sentiments to our culture, ritual and past eating habits, gen next are at full liberty to choose their life at their own wishes.

Today, certain section of the people eats vegetarian food while the rest chooses non-vegetarian dishes as their staple food menu for luncheon and dinner. But for all non-vegetarians out there, some harsh reality is there to encounter with. A recent report published by Guardian revealed that the Chickens raised here for food are dosed with the toughest and strongest antibiotics.

Once the news got viral now the health conscious people in India are in a dilemma on whether to continue their non-vegetarian eating habits or shift to totally vegetarian dishes?

Pic source: Quora

In India, Chickens and goats for food are never thoroughly inspected. Chickens and goats are often injected with hardest of antibiotics that raising some serious concerns over their possible impact on human health. Injecting heavy doses of antibiotics to chickens is not new. These things are incessantly happening for the last few years together as poultry owners want their chicks to look healthy and fresh 24x7x365.

Bad News for Chicken Lovers

Eating these chickens regularly will definitely hamper our digestive capacity and nullifying the utility of these antibiotics in the long run. With regular consumption of these chickens, residual substance of the injected antibiotics gets absorbed in our veins making our bodies more resistant to antibiotics in future.

A Study by the Bureau of Investigative Journalism revealed that tones and tones of Colistin (strongest antibiotic) are shipped to India for the routine checkup of birds and animals, especially chickens. Poultry owners even without proper checkup under medical supervision, inject these antibiotics to birds even when they don’t need it.

Chickens and muttons available in the market are often impure because these creatures are injected with unnecessary amount of antibiotics and other medical substances which is totally uncalled for. Just to let these creatures look healthy and strong, their owners never routinely torture them with antibiotic abuse.

Health Risks Associated with Non-Vegetarian Foods

  • Saturated fat and cholesterol are in abundance in non-vegetarian foods than vegetarian ones.
  • Useful substances like Phytochemicals (plant chemicals) can be found in vegetables and fruits only.
  • Fresh vegetables and fruits keep our Blood pressure under control. Contrarily, meats and chickens raise our BP level.
  • People who tend to eat non-vegetarian dishes daily, face more chances of cardiac problems than vegetarians.
  • High fiber whole grains, grams and legumes are more stomach friendly than chicken and mutton.
  • The prevalence of cancer among non-vegetarian people is more common than pure vegetarians.

Pic courtesy: NSSO

The Conclusion

Finally, since childhood we are hearing the couplet that ‘an apple a day keeps doctors away’. So, definitely, rather than eating non-vegetarian dishes day in and day out, we should never underestimate the health benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables.

Image source: i guim

Fresh green vegetables like broccoli, Chinese cabbage, collards, and spinach provide us with all the goodness of calcium and proteins far more than non-vegetarian stuff. These vegetables are lower in calories too. So, definitely, fresh fruits and leafy vegetables are always better option than chickens and muttons at any time of the day.

Virtual Love – Why are millennial obsessed with it?

With increasing conglomeration of the virtual world into the real world, video games with live effects are becoming popular amongst every age strata.

Love and Producer is one such gaming application that has provided a virtual reality to Chinese women.

Gameslook launched the game on December 2017, which sought to ease out post-breakup blues. No sooner, it was a hit amongst the women who downloaded the application on their smartphones.

The game provides a platform to dispel the worries, the long-term disappointment that women usually feel after a heartbreak.

With the Adonis characters and the romantic ambience, one almost enters a dream world with open eyes. In this virtual world of Love and Producer, women manipulate the strings of relationships without any inhibitions.

Impressive reception

Since its launch, the Love and Producer game has been downloaded about eight million times. The number of online users per day is increasingly growing.

In China, one-third gamers are women, and this new launch has certainly proved to be a blessing for the developers. The number of users it has in such a meagre time has left all stunned.

Perhaps this was the trigger that caused this virtual beau to go viral on different platforms in other countries including India, Indonesia, Japan.

Characters lead the way

Love and Producer has four characters who in the end will become one’s Beau or Love Partner. Physically, the male figures are much like the direct descendants of the Greek god Adonis. With their charming personalities and perfectly sculpted physique, they are the perfect male partners in virtual reality.

The young CEO, Li Zeyan in Love and Producer has captured many hearts, and is naturally the most popular. His dominating yet appealing aura is designed to make the players go weak on their knees. Some fans of Li Zeyan even wished him on his virtual birthday by displaying a message for him on a skyscraper.

The other characters are also equally appealing and desirable, and have left Chinese women swooning. Sweet replies and their admiring approach have worked like a charm. No doubt, the game is becoming a trend in and outside China.

Escape from reality

The increasing difficulties in a real life relationship are forcing these women to become inclined towards the virtual world. Here they would not be judged for anything, and would be respected.

Women have found a temporary respite from the inevitable emotional attachments and the heartbreaks of a relationship. Goodbye incessant crying and depression!

Love and Producer is a relief from the harsh realities of the world, and so women are relying on those virtual friends and taking a chance with their hearts.

Global phenomenon

These virtual games are not only popular in China but all over the world.

My Candy Love, developed by a gaming company in France allows female players to develop a love life in a virtual college.

Love Story Games: Teen Romance is another popular android interface game from Serbia. It provides virtual high-school love relationships, made more enthralling by unique features and graphics.

Pixelberry, California’s famous web game developer, has created a mystery and adventure filled teenage love story – Choices. It is a virtual simulation app where the players can choose their partners and experience an amazing virtual love journey.

The first country to develop such passionate games is Japan. Otome Ghost Love Stories is one of the popular games from Hanabi Media Solutions, a game developer company in Japan. The love story between a woman and her ghost best friend makes it intriguing for the gamers.

The virtual world is helping the gamers lessen the stress of the real world. At least till now.

Male Sex Dolls – What’s in it for the women

When women were busy worrying from where to satiate their impending sexual desires, the finest sex dolls manufacturer, Realbotix gave them enough to breathe in relief. Recently the CEO of Realbotix, Matt McMullen had announced his ardent desire to launch a male sex bot in this year. In an interview with the Daily star online, he said: “We’re working on a male version of the robot AI. We’ll eventually have a male and a female platform available.”

He said that this time around, they are going for more advanced and realistic approach other than the voice and the desiring personality of the male sex dolls. Realbotix are going to launch male dolls with the typical ‘Bionic Penis’, the anatomy which they are claiming to be better than the vibrating dildos. In addition, when Matt was asked about the Penis size, he simply said ‘Sky is the limit’! No restriction in the penile width or length at the most.

The sex toys that came into the market for hormonal simulation weren’t enough for women to satisfy their raging hormones. That is why Dutch sailors invented the first sex doll in seventeenth century. Though the practice was not common around that time, at present time, these dolls are really a relief.

Sinthetics, a LA based sex doll manufacturer has recently added the domain of male sex dolls in their list of products. Gabriel, one of the famous creations of the company has become famous in LA after Karley Sciortino, a sex columnist for the Vogue and Vice released a documentary with him. In the 20 minute long ‘slutever’ video, she had covered the making of the first male sex doll. However, the main intriguing interest of the viewers lies in the last 8 minutes of the video where she had been found straddling Gabriel’s lap and getting intimate with the sex doll.

However, Cindy Gallop, founder of Makelovenotporn had mentioned in one of her interview that Realbotix’s to be launched male sex doll cannot provide a mindblowing orgasmic climax to the women with just a long penis fitted into a human- shaped hump machine. This claim of her was the perfect counter attack of Matt McMullen’s statement, “plug the robot in as long as you want”.

Having innate resemblance to a real life male partner with the sharp physique and hard and sturdy abs, these male dolls are becoming popular amongst women from different cultures and regions. The art of these dolls reveals a man in complete sense; the only difference is the striking absence of the pumping organ, heart. With the principle anatomies in its correct places, these are becoming a replacement of the ex’s and a companion for the single women.

Even some of the manufacturing units of USA are saying that with increasing developments in the anatomy and the physique of the male sex dolls, they might soon replace the real life male partners in the women’s life.


Twinkle Twinkle Little Star: Do Stars Really Twinkle At Night?

Staring up above the sky, we notice a cluster of diamond twinkling in the sky. These are stars. Since childhood we know that Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star, but do stars really twinkle at night is the biggest question. To be precise, some stars twinkle and some not. But what is the valid rationale behind the twinkling of stars?

Little bit more research on the subject deciphers that twinkling of stars is eventually the result of the gaseous mixture and other substances in our open atmosphere. When light from a far-away located star touches the earth, its light should be well-aligned but noticing stars from outer space or outside the earth, one would see them as a glare of light.

Stars twinkle twinkle

Image source: smartlearningforall

The lights are susceptible to bend due to air up to a nominal amount. The light will be enough to scatter its shine over a wider area. When the light swiftly moves through the atmosphere hitting several air pockets, the stars get out of shape and appear to be twinkle on top of the sky.

The Secret of the Universe

Stars are basically too far away from the living planet Earth. Actually, when the light from the stars moves towards the earth then it gets refracted many times. This process is called astronomical scintillation. However, despite being extra terrestrial bodies, the Sun and planets in our solar system don’t shine of their own. They are too close to our planet in comparison to others.

Each layer of Earth’s atmosphere involves some movement of air in various directions at various speeds and intensity. If an astronaut views towards stars from outer space then actually they won’t be twinkling anymore. That’s the very reason why astronauts and scientists work day and night with telescopes to unravel the secrets of the universe.  

The Truth is Stars Never Twinkle

In a nutshell, Stars do not really twinkle or shine at all although they might be appearing so from the surface of Earth. It is the atmosphere that makes stars twinkle at night. Astronomers find it extremely difficult zero on in a particular star because of its excessive twinkling. When the star twinkles, the images inside the telescope and other scientific equipment give blurrier images.

According to Aristotle, Stars twinkle so that people could magnify their vision of life, space and other things surrounding us. A few centuries later, scientists found that stars twinkle because they move from one side to another. However, it was only in the 18th century, when the great scientist Isaac Newton propounded the real reason behind star’s twinkle. He observed it was Earth’s atmosphere that is responsible for star’s twinkle. And literally, Twinkle, Twinkle little or big star could be a figment of our imagination only.

What New Space Scientists Have to Say on It

Lorne Whitehead, a physicist at the University of British Columbia stated, “A bright light, positioned far away, projects as a tiny point through the varying air densities of our atmosphere. Hundreds of these pockets act as lenses, refracting the light so that it moves like the light on the bottom of a swimming pool on a sunny day. The changing swells on the pool’s surface correspond to the turbulent shifting of our atmosphere”.

Twinkle stars

Image source: mocomipullzone

A few years later, John Kuehne of the University of Texas found that “Starlight is a set of light waves that travel perfectly in sync. The atmosphere puts wrinkles and crenelations into that wave front. Thus, it compels stars to appear twinkling at night from Earth, scientifically called stellar scintillation.

Food Fortification is the Only Solution to Cure Global Nutritional Deficiency

Many people are still unaware about the benefits of Food fortification worldwide. However, in the last few years, several countries have initiated the practice of food fortification in their own lands to curb the nutritional woes of its citizens.

Considering the current situation, when we intake much of the impure food due to growing adulteration of farming methods, food fortification is becoming more urgent than ever.

Around 3 to 5 million people die due to nutritional deficiency every year. According to research study published on Copenhagenconsensus news portal, such deaths due to under nutrition and malnourishment could be prevented through food fortification.

Food Fortification

image source:

It refers to a process of adding minerals and vitamins to foods to prevent diseases, and keeping people fit and in shape. It improves immune systems and cognitive development too. The grains like flour, rice, wheat and maize flour are fortified to prevent birth defects affecting spine and brain. It helps preventing nutritional anemia too.

The United Nations accepted 17 sustainable development goals with an intention to fortifying grains towards addressing the growing concern of malnutrition prevailing across the world, and especially in developing nations including the third world countries.

Food Fortification: Substances and Benefits

Vitamin B6: For enhancing enzyme reactions and metabolisms

Selenium: Stimulate Thyroid functions inside the body

Calcium: Helps strengthening the bones making them stronger and assist proper functioning of the muscles.

Zinc: Improves our immune system.

Vitamin B12: Assists in proper functioning of the brain and nervous system.

Vitamin D: It helps human bodies to absorb necessary amount of calcium strengthening their bones.

Necessity of Food Fortification in Africa

Africa reports maximum number of deaths due to malnutrition every year. In order to curb this menace now, FAO along with the UN and other international agencies of repute have strongly advocated for food fortification equally in all parts of Africa.

At present several countries are making mandatory legislation to ensure that food fortification process is completed transparently and in a meticulous manner. The European Union (EU) is making huge investments towards food fortification in African countries.

In Gambia, one of the poorest countries of Africa, the rate of malnutrition and underweight is growing day by day. Also, severe Vitamin A deficiency is rising very much in Gambia. Anemia is also becoming a common disease for women across the nation.

Food Fortification: New Trends and Need

Fortifying wheat flour with folic acid is vital to prevent neural tube defects. Without food fortification, as many as 1 in every 500 pregnancies get affected due to neural tube problems.

The rate of neural tube defects has plummeted by 35% in 1998 largely due to timely intervention by the concerned authority making food fortification obligatory.

In fact, several countries get affected due to such kind of defects which could be otherwise prevented by proper consumption of folic acid added to food grains and cereals. Folic acid also cures the diseases relating to neuropathy as well.

Image source: foodfacts website

Since 1998, the United States has successfully prevented 3,000 cases of NTD (Neural Tube Defects) owing to its nationwide implementation of food fortification policies that include adding necessary amount of folic acid in necessary food grains.

It’s high time that all countries should follow food fortification process in a judicious way to ensure that people shouldn’t face problems relating to nutritional deficiency or other diseases that affect thousands of lives round the year due to malnutrition and under-nutrition.

How Does Signal Booster Technology Resolve Low Mobile Connectivity

These days, mobile signal booster technology works wonderfully in remote areas where mobile signals come and go. The latest statistics suggests that more than 70% Americans and people living in other parts of the world face problems relating to slow net connections and dropped calls very often.

These days, mobile signal boosters are available at very cheap cost. Anyone can purchase it online or from shopping stores and get seamless and flawless connectivity round the clock. In hilly areas or in places with high humidity, mobile signals often trouble the users. Therefore, using this portable device could be immensely beneficial to persons living in those far-off areas.

Authenticity of Mobile Signal Booster

Every time you buy a mobile signal booster, it needs to be authenticated by the concerned authority. In the United States, all smartphone signal boosters are verified and certified by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Similarly, in Canada, the signal boosters are being certified and tested by Industry Canada (IC).

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Every time you go on to buy mobile signal boosters, you must check its authenticity. Certifications guarantee that the device is of good quality and then it also assures that boosters won’t interfere with the internal algorithms of a nation’s cellular network.

Top 10 Benefits of Mobile Signal Boosters

  • It Enhances the mobile’s reception quality.
  • It improves the overall voice calling quality over telephone.
  • It brings a drastic reduction in dropped calls.
  • It protects the user from harmful radiation caused due to weak signal scenario.
  • It accelerates the internet connectivity facilitating fast transfer of data.
  • It works on multiple network including 3G, 4G and 5G as well.
  • It boosts signal capacity of both GSM and CDMA phones.
  • It enhances the speed of live video streaming.
  • It increases the speed of uploading and downloading of data.
  • Using other equipment, this mobile signal booster can be connected to PC for superfast net connectivity.

How Does Mobile Signal Boosters Work: An In-depth Investigation

Before decipher on how this portable device works, let me disclose its basic concept. Smartphone signals move from one place to another through radio frequency waves. The frequency transfer happens in a fraction of second and takes place through optical fibres used for telecommunication wiring.

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Suppose, you use radio in a car. It actually works because of the attached antenna that amplifies and re-transmits the available signals inside the car. Then it becomes easier for the riders and pillions to enjoy radio on the vehicle. The working of cellphones is almost similar.

Scientifically speaking, mobile signal booster also exhausts similar wireless technology to re-transmit and amplify signals inside a home or outer place. This way, it helps users to enjoy seamless mobile connectivity round the clock amidst weak mobile signals emanating from mobile and smartphone towers.

Use Mobiles Non-Stop Through Cell Phone Signal Booster

Also, this signal device hastens up the entire process of transmitting signals from one mobile phone to another within the same or different networks. Thus, in this process it successfully completes the signal loop leading to better communications.

Image source: amazon

Signal booster helps the user enjoy high-quality YouTube videos on mobile phones even when signal is weak. Cellphone signal boosters consist of bi-directional antennas that catch signals and amplify them further. It is just like oxygen to network and signal worries. Give it a try and you will start realizing its growing importance day by day.

Some Essential Safety Tips for Pedestrians

Globally speaking, around 1.3-million people die in road crashes every year. The statistics further says that additional 40-50 million people sustained heavy injuries each year. Is there any way to prevent such a disastrous trend? The answer is yes.

Interestingly, not all accidents are caused due to negligence or inability of the driver riding the vehicles. Some accident and mishaps involving pedestrians also happen because of the latter’s ignoring of traffic rules or over-engagement with devices and gadgets.

Top 8 Safety Rules Every Pedestrians Must Follow

#1) Forget Headphones: Headphones are certainly becoming the death trap for the youths. Once they put that device over their head, it literally becomes impossible to listen to the vehicle’s horns. So, once you are on road, don’t put headphones on.

#2) Follow Traffic Rules: Unintentionally, Pedestrians invited dangers by ignoring traffic rules. It shouldn’t be done. When red light is on, it means a pedestrian has to wait. Once it shows green, then pedestrians can walk or cross the roads without any worry.

#3)   Night-Time Travelling: When a person or commuter is walking at night, then he should carry flashlight with himself. If a speeding vehicle fails to notice the passenger, then he should flash the torch to show that he needs help.

#4) Avoid Staying Near to Stationary Vehicles: Many times drivers unknowingly speed over pedestrians while back-riding their vehicles. So, pedestrians will have to stay away from buses, parked cars and other vehicles while crossing.

#5) Sidewalk or Footpath: As per the nomenclature, it is fully safe for pedestrians to stroll on sidewalk or footpaths only. Never try to walk in the middle of the roads amidst so many speeding vehicles. If you come across Zebra Crossing then act according to traffic signals only.

#6) Caution while Crossing a Street: While crossing a Street, you should carefully see left, right and then proceed. No matter what the traffic signal is indicating, still there are some rude and aggressive drivers who are always in a hurry. So, it is highly advisable that you must see all sides of road before crossing the same.

Image source: slideshare

#7) No Selfie or Facebook Live on Busy Streets: Keep facebook and social media out of your life as long as you are on the street. With a sudden rise in selfie deaths across countries, all pedestrians are strictly avoided and warned not to use facebook while on streets. And never try to use Facebook live either. Social Media could literally endanger your life!

#8) Say No to Drunk Driving: Even though, some countries permit consumption of liquor in moderation while driving, yet it should be avoided at all cost. According to National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NHTSA), 32 percent of all pedestrian fatalities happen late night when drivers are drunk. They not only endanger the lives of themselves but of the pedestrians as well.

The Conclusion

Statistically, 90% of road hazards take place in low and middle-income nations having less than 50% of the world’s vehicles and equipment. Therefore, a pedestrian’s safety is of paramount importance.

Hence, it is important that all pedestrians should exercise maximum caution while walking on the busy streets. They must avoid distractions of all sorts as well.

Using Spirograph to Enhance Fine Motor Skills in the Elderly

Fine motor skills refer to smaller movements that take place in wrist, hand, finger, foot and toe. These have an essential role in activities such as writing since they coordinate the movements such as picking and holding objects between thumb and fingers. Fine motor skills development is essential for the kids, but this article talks about the development of fine motor skills in the elderly.

Spirograph is an ideal tool to improve the fine motor skills of school going kids, but the tool can equally prove useful for enhancing these skills in the elderly. There are some research studies such as Voelcker-Rehage (2008) which do recognize the possibility of enhancement of motor skills learning in older people. Taking inspiration from such studies, I hereby propose a hypothesis: The use of spirograph on a regular basis is expected to enhance fine motor skills in older people. I did an experiment with my 82 year old grandmother by asking her to use the spirograph to create a graph each day for 8 days. She did show some stability in her finger movements, but the experiment could not be completed for a sustainable time span.

There is a distinct contrast between spirograph drawn by my octogenarian grandmother and a professional spirograph artist (see pictures below). However, considering the fact that continuous practice can enhance outcomes, I recommend spirograph as an effective and economical tool to improve fine motor skills in elderly other than young children. It is for the medical fraternity to explore the utility of this mathematical tool for enhanced outcomes.

Spirograph drawn by a professional

Spirograph drawn by a professional

Spirograph drawn by 82 year old woman

Spirograph drawn by 82 year old woman

Spirograph drawn by 82 year old woman

Spirograph drawn by 82 year old woman


Voelcker-Rehage, C. (2008). Motor-skill learning in older adults—a review of studies on age-related differences. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 530. Retrieved from

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Tesla becomes the fastest car ever in the world

With SpaceX Starman riding Tesla Roadster into space earlier today, Tesla can be officially conferred as the fastest car in the world. After the launch of Falcon Heavy, the electric car and a dummy passenger (Starman) were placed into earth’s orbit. The images of the dummy astronaut riding the car became viral with the dummy’s right hand placed on the steering wheel and left arm on the door.

Starman riding Tesla in space

Starman riding Tesla in space Source and Credits:


Tesla in space

Tesla in space Source and Credits:

Though the Falcon Heavy Rocket launch failed as the middle booster of the rocket failed to land on its drone ship, the Starman’s ride on Tesla around the earth has definitely won hearts all over the world!